24/04/2019, 15:30 — 16:30 — Room P3.10, Mathematics Building
Carlos Herdeiro, Instituto Superior Técnico
Light ring stability in ultra-compact objects
We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales. The proof of the theorem has two parts: (i) We show that light rings always come in pairs, one being a saddle point and the other a local extremum of an effective potential. This result follows from a topological argument based on the Brouwer degree of a continuous map, with no assumptions on the spacetime dynamics, and hence it is applicable to any metric gravity theory where photons follow null geodesics. (ii) Assuming Einstein's equations, we show that the extremum is a local minimum of the potential (i.e., a stable light ring) if the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the null energy condition.
08/05/2019, 15:00 — 16:00 — Room P3.10, Mathematics Building
Phillipo Lappicy, Universidade de São Paulo
Space of initial data for self-similar Schwarzschild solutions
The Einstein constraint equations describe the space of initial data for the evolution equations, dictating how space should curve within spacetime. Under certain assumptions, the constraints reduce to a scalar quasilinear parabolic equation on the sphere with various singularities and nonlinearity being the prescribed scalar curvature of space. We focus on self-similar Schwarzschild solutions. Those describe, for example, the initial data for the interior of black holes. We construct the space of initial data for such solutions and show that the metric at the event horizon is constrained to the global attractors of such parabolic equations. Lastly, some properties of those attractors and its solutions are explored.